Biomagnetism and Bio-Electromagnetism: The Foundation of Life


Throughout the past 30 years, scientists have been   extensively researching organisms that have the ability to produce the   ferromagnetic mineral magnetite. Magnetite is a black mineral form of iron oxide that crystallizes in the cubic  or isometric system, namely all crystals which have their crystallographic axes of equal length at 90 degrees   to each other. It is a mixed Iron (II) Iron (III)  oxide, Fe3O4, and is   one of the major ores of iron that is strongly magnetic. Some varieties,   known as lodestone, are natural magnets; these were used as  compasses   in the ancient world.The discovery of a biogenic material (that is, one formed   by a biological  organism) with ferromagnetic properties and found to be   magnetite was the first breakthrough toward an understanding as to why some   animals have the ability to detect the earth’s magnetic field. Searches for   biogenic magnetite in human tissues had not been conclusive until the   beginning of the 1990’s when work with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction on human brain tissue extracts of the   cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and meninges (membranes surrounding the brain   and spinal cord) identified magnetite-maghemite crystals.

These magnetite crystals were found to be organized into   linear, membrane-bound chains a few micrometers in length, with up to 80   crystals per  chain. Furthermore individual crystals have their {111}   aligned along the length  of the chain axes (the “easy”   direction of magnetization). The {111} crystal  alignment has been   interpreted as a biological mechanism for maximizing the magnetic moment per   particle, as the {111} direction yields approximately 3% higher saturation   magnetization than do other directions. This prismatic particle shape is also   uncommon in geological magnetite crystals of this size, which are usually   octahedra. The crystal morphology was found to be cubo-octahedral with the   {111} faces of adjacent crystals lying perpendicular to  the chain axis.

All the magnetite crystals that have been examined to date   are single  magnetic domains, which means that they are uniformly and   stably magnetized and  have the maximum magnetic moment per unit volume   possible for magnetite.  Elemental analysis, by energy-dispersive X-ray   analysis, electron diffraction patterns, and high resolution transmission   electron microscopy lattice images,  showed that many of the particles   were structurally well-ordered and  crystallographically single-domain   magnetite. This means that the production of  this biomineral must be   under precise biological control.

Ferromagnetic crystals interact more than a million times   more strongly with external magnetic fields than do diamagnetic or   paramagnetic materials (deoxyhemoglobin, ferritin, and hemosiderin).With this   finding researchers were  posed with a fundamental question for biology,   namely: What is the mechanism through which the weak geomagnetic fields are   perceived by organisms that are  able to precipitate crystals of a   ferromagnetic mineral such as magnetite  (Fe3O4)? Could these crystals   use their motion in a variety of ways to transduce  the geomagnetic   field into signals that can be processed by the nervous  system?

The presence of membrane-bound biomineral magnetite, which   has been shown to have a biological origin, and the implication that some   kind of mechanical  coupling must take place between each compass   magnetite particle and a  mechanoreceptor, or at least a functionally   equivalent mechanism allowing the  position of the particle to be   monitored by a sensory organelle in the body, is  unique. Research has   also found that the magnetite is produced by the cells of the organism when   needed. Forms of advanced physical intelligence can directly tap into this   information if they have a crystalline network within their brain cavity.

Scientists are now asking the fundamental question: What   is magnetite doing  in the human brain? In magnetite-containing   bacteria, the answer is simple: Magnetite crystals turn the bacteria into   swimming needles that orient with  respect to the earth’s magnetic   fields. Magnetite has also been found in animals that navigate by compass   direction, such as bees, birds, and fish, but scientists do not know why the   magnetite is present in humans, only that it is there.

We have also seen in research done in the late 1980s that   proteins, DNA, and transforming DNA function as piezoelectric crystal lattice   structures in nature.  The piezoelectric effect refers to that property   of matter which may convert  electromagnetic oscillations to mechanical   vibrations and vice versa. Studies with exogenously administered   electromagnetic fields have shown that both  transcription (RNA   synthesis) and translation (protein synthesis) can be induced  by   electromagnetic fields and furthermore that direct current in bone will    produce osteochondrogenesis (bone formation) and bacteriostasis, as well   as  affect adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, protein synthesis   and membrane  transport.

In the human brain, pyramidal cells are present and   arranged in layers in the  cortex of the two cerebra. The pyramidal   cells act as electro-crystal cells immersed in extra-cellular tissue fluids,   and seem to operate in the fashion of  a liquid crystal oscillator in   response to different light commands, or light pulses which, in turn, change   the orientation of every molecule and atom within the body. Biogravitational   encoded switches present in the brain allow a type of  liquid network to   release ions that induce currents to the surrounding coiled dendrites.   Electron impulses from a neuron, on reaching the dendrite coil of the abutted cell, generate a micro amperage magnetic field, causing the ultra thin crystal, or liquid crystal in the pyramidal cell to be activated — in a   very unusual way. On flexing, this ultra thin crystal becomes a piezoelectric   oscillator, producing a circular polarized light pulse that travels   throughout the body, or travels as a transverse photonic bundle of energy.

According to Einstein, matter is to be regarded itself as   part, in fact the  principle part, of the electromagnetic field, and   electric energy is therefore  the fundamental origin of our entire   physical world. Consequently, in work  published by The Academy For   Future Science it has been cited that “under present biological   conditions, evolutionary development in living bodies from earliest inception   follows unicellular semiconductivity, as a living piezoelectric matrix,   through stages which permit primitive basic tissues (glia, satellite and   Schwann cells) to be supportive to the neurons in the human system    where the primary source is electrical. This has been especially shown in   bone  growth response to mechanical stress and to fractures which have   been  demonstrated to have characteristics of control systems using   electricity.”

Ongoing research has shown that bone has electrical   properties. The bone matrix is a biphasic (two-part) semiconductor, i.e. a   crystalline solid with an electrical conductivity. The collagen component of   bone matrix is an N-type  semiconductor and the apatite component a   P-type. When tested for  piezoelectricity, collagen turns out to be a   piezoelectric generator while  apatite is not. These function as two   semiconductors, one an N-type, the other a P-type forming a PN-junction,   which sets up a potential barrier and acts as an  efficient rectifier,   i.e. a semiconductor diode.

Mechanical stress on the bone thus produces a   piezoelectrical signal from the  collagen. The signal is biphasic,   switching polarity with each stress-and-release. The signal is rectified by   the PN-junction between apatite  and collagen. The strength of the   signal tells the bone cells how strong the stress is, and its polarity tells   them what direction it comes from. Osteogenic  (bone forming) cells,   which have been shown to have a negative potential, would  be stimulated   to grow more bone, while those in the positive area would stop    production of matrix and be resorbed when needed. If bone growth and   resorption  are part of one process, the electrical signal acts as an   analog code to transfer information about stress to the cells and trigger the   right response.  Hence, stress is converted into an electrical signal.

An interesting property of PN-junctions of semiconductor   diodes may be observed when current is run though the diode in forward bias,   i.e. when there is a good current flow across the barrier. Some of the energy   is turned into light and emitted from the surface and are therefore known as   light-emitting  diodes (LEDs). Researchers found that bone was an LED   that required an outside source of light before an electric current would   make it release its own light, and the light it emitted was at an infrared   frequency invisible to us, but consistent.

With the use of an applied current of a few microamperes   regeneration of the spinal cord, optic nerve and bone has been demonstrated   and naturally generated electric currents have been linked to changes in   developing embryos and in  regenerating limbs.

During the past decades a great increase has taken place   in research on the  effects of non -ionizing electromagnetic radiation   on biological systems. Much  has been revealed about the human organisms   on all levels but the question still being asked by scientists is: What   electromagnetic signal might tune to a magnetic resonant energy which would   alter the metabolic genetic regulation to  bring about growth and   repair? It has been considered by this author that tRNA molecules may play a   central roll to cause cells to alter their normal properties which will then   receive the original genetic transmission, given  through a ‘spin point’   to a cell. These transmissions at the spin points, as discussed through   research at The Academy For Future Science, may provide  regenerating   instruction for the manufacture of enzymes and proteins which are the   building blocks for the ‘new tissue’ or the ‘new organ form’ which is   regenerated on the physical plane. Projecting energy into the spin point allows    for the formation of a blastema (mass of primitive type cells) that gives   rise to the regenerated tissue. Thus, through the spin point, cells become   the tissue  responsible for the generation and transmission of direct   current signals used  in regeneration processes.

by H. Coetzee, Ph.D.

[Originally published in Future History, Volume 8]


Paramagnetism is a weak magnetic condition of   substances that have a  positive but small susceptibility to magnetism.

Diamagnetism is the phenomenon exhibited by   substances that are repelled by both poles of a magnet and thus lie across   the magnet’s line of influence  i.e. have a negative susceptibility to   magnetism. All substances are  diamagnetic.

Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon exhibited by   substances such as iron  that show increasing magnetization with applied   magnetizing field and persists after the removal of the applied field.

Magnetic domain is one of the regions in a   ferromagnetic solid in which all the atoms have their magnetic moments   aligned in the same direction.

Crystal faces are represented by indices and when   the indices are enclosed in braces, e.g. {111}, the indices refer to a   complete group of  faces.


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