Malaria Parasite Infects Gorillas, Not Just Humans

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YAOUNDE – Gorillas carry the parasite that causes malignant malaria in humans, a finding that could help in efforts to develop a vaccine for malaria, researchers say.

Malaria is a sometimes fatal disease, usually contracted from mosquitoes, most commonly in areas such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. People who contract malaria typically develop flu-like symptoms with high fevers and chills, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In the new study, researchers analyzed fecal samples from 84 gorillas in Cameroon and blood samples from three gorillas in Gabon and found the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which was previously believed to only infect humans. P. falciparum causes 85 percent of malignant malaria infections in humans and nearly all deaths from malaria.

The scientists also found that the gorillas carried two closely related species of malaria parasites: Plasmodium GorA and Plasmodium GorB.

The discovery of P. falciparum in gorillas complicates efforts to eradicate malaria, according to the study published in this week’s issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Hundreds of billions of dollars are spent each year toward ridding humans of malignant malaria. But success may be a pyrrhic victory, because we could be re-infected by gorillas — just as we were originally infected by chimps a few thousand years ago,” study co-author Francisco Ayala, a biologist at the University of California, Irvine, said in a university news release.

Along with potentially aiding in the development of a malaria vaccine, this finding helps improve understanding of how infectious diseases such as HIV, SARS and bird and swine flu can be transmitted from animals to humans, the researchers noted.

Each year, malaria sickens about 500 million people worldwide and causes 2 million infant deaths. Four kinds of malaria parasites can infect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae. Infection with P. falciparum, if not promptly treated, may lead to death, according to the CDC.

 

Soon, Robo-Bees that Mimic Bees Behavior

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Soon, Robo-Bees that Mimic Bees Behavior

WASHINGTON – A Northeastern University neurobiologist is collaborating with Harvard University researchers to develop micro flying robots that will emulate the bees’ brain, body and collective behavior.

Biology professor Joseph Ayers would create robots, called the robobees, which would mimic the communal feeding behavior of bee colonies.

The project will draw on the knowledge of computer scientists, engineers, and biologists to construct an electronic nervous system, a supervisory architecture and a high-energy source to power the innovative robots.

“This project will integrate the efforts and expertise of a diverse team of investigators to create a system that far transcends the sum of its parts. We expect substantial advances in basic science at the intersection of these seemingly disparate disciplines to result from this effort,” said Ayers.

Inspired by the biology of the bee and the insect’s colonial behaviour, the project aims to advance miniature robotics and the design of compact high-energy power sources.

The project would also spur innovations in ultra-low-power computing and electronic “smart” sensors that mediate biomimetic control.

In addition, it would refine coordination algorithms to manage multiple, independent machines.

Ayers is widely known for his work in biomimetics- the science of adapting the control systems found in nature to inform design of engineered systems to solve real-world problems-including the development of RoboLobster and RoboLamprey.

The autonomous, biomimetic underwater robotic models emulate the operations of the animals’ nervous systems using an electronic controller based on nonlinear, moving models of neurons and synapses.

“Animals have evolved to occupy every environmental niche where we would hope to operate robots, save outer space. They provide proven solutions to problems that confound even the most sophisticated robots, and our challenge is to capture these performance advantages in engineered devices,” said Ayers.

The Pill Bottle Gets a Cell Phone, to Remind You to Take Your Medicine

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The Pill Bottle Gets a Cell Phone, to Remind You to Take Your Medicine

CAMBRIDGE – “Hi! This is your aspirin bottle calling. I haven’t seen you in a while. Why don’t you come see me soon? I’m good for the heart, you know.”

That’s the spirit, if not the wording, of the calls that will come from new pill bottle caps that connect to AT&T Inc.’s wireless network.

A Cambridge, Mass.-based startup called Vitality Inc. was set to announce the pill-bottle system Thursday, saying it helps solve one of the biggest problems in medicine: that people don’t consistently take the drugs they’re prescribed.

That costs the U.S. $290 billion in added medical spending each year, according to a study published in August by the New England Healthcare Institute. Mortality rates are twice as high among diabetes and heart disease patients who don’t take their pills properly, it said.

With Vitality’s system, when a pill-bottle cap is opened, it uses a close-range wireless signal to tell a base station in the home. That station, which looks like a night light, essentially has a cell phone inside that can send messages through AT&T’s network.

If the bottle isn’t opened at the appointed time, the cap and night light start blinking to remind the owner to take the medication. If that doesn’t serve as enough of a hint, they start playing jingles as well. If the bottle stays unopened, the night light will send a message to Vitality’s system, which can then place an automated phone call or send a text message with a reminder.

That points to another possibility opened by the wireless bottle cap: making the pill-taking routine more than just a matter between the patient and the bottle. Vitality’s system can be set to alert a relative if someone isn’t taking medicine.

“The social aspect of this is important,” Vitality CEO David Rose said. “Almost every successful behavior change program, the academics will tell you, involves social dynamics, whether it’s smoking cessation or Weight Watchers.”

A price for the new system hasn’t been disclosed. Vitality hopes insurance and drug companies will get on board with the system and cover the cost.

Vitality has been selling an earlier version of the product in small numbers from its Web site for $99. In that version, the night light doesn’t contain a cell phone. Instead it connects to a third piece of hardware, a “gateway” plugged into a home’s Internet router. But not all homes have routers, and configuring them can be tricky. The AT&T-powered night light simplifies the installation.

The Best Commercial Bread To Buy

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BEVERLY HILLS – US Tele-Medicine, the operators of this blog, rarely recommends any product because there are always opposing viewpoints with respect to ingredients, integrity or manufacture.  There are no perfect products manufactured by man.  There are close exception to that understanding.  This is one of them.

Wheat is a mainstay of many peoples and national diets around the world.  Wheat itself is quite healthy and beneficial source of carbs and fibers.  Wheat becomes less healthy  when we add yeasts, preservatives, enhancers and flavors, in any baked goods.   This is not to mention the sugars, syrups, fruits, emulsifiers and binders, added to the wheat by most mass- market commercial bakeries.  This is when wheat becomes toxic.

All commercial brands of breads have some other “natural” product added to the wheat, which always disturbs the structure of the beneficial fibers and confuses the body looking for clean carbs.  Except one.

In our opinion, the BEST commercial bread is found at Trader Joe’s Markets and branded as “Pain Pascal Organic Demi Miche.”  The ingredients: Organic Whole Wheat Flour, Filtered Water, and Sea Salt.   

The texture is incredibly soft, dense like a European country bread and very moist.  The taste is superb and especially aromatic lathered with some good Irish or Danish butter.  It toasts very heartily and the full crispy-on-the-outside, moist- on- the- inside effect is always there.

It is delicious, hearty, attractive, and very healthy for you to eat.  Bon appetite.